Print this out, Read the sources and answer the questions in the spaces provided off line

Print this out, Read the sources and answer the questions in the spaces provided off line. Come back online to mark your work

Source 1

During the Reformation, Catholic institutions were abolished by the newly formed Protestants. What had been good hospitals for the times, were replaced by Work Houses and Alms Houses for the poor. Some hospitals did replace the Catholic ones but without the organization and management of the Church, the conditions were abysmal.

The care in the new institutions was provided by prisoners, pardoned criminals, alcoholics and aged prostitutes, no longer young enough to ply their trade. The "nurses" were best characterised by Charles Dickens's portrayal of Sairey Gamp. Sairey was an elderly prositute working as a "nurse" who ate her patient's food and drank the family's booze. She was hired to care for patients whose relatives could afford her sparse wage. Essentially her work consisted of sitting with the patient and doing as little as possible. It was a matter of survival of the nurses not the patients.

"Perspectives on nursing" Donna Forrest 1999

Source 2

Florence decided that she must train to be a nurse. Her family was horrified. In her day, nursing was done mostly by disabled army veterans or by women with no other means of support. It was common for nurses of either sex to be drunk on the job most of the time, and they had no training at all. It was common practice never to wash or change the sheets on a bed, not even when a patient died and his bed was given to a new patient. Florence was told to go to Kaiserswerth, Germany, to learn and train with the Lutheran order of Deaconesses who were running a hospital there. Back in England again, she used the influence of Sidney Herbert, a family friend and Member of Parliament, to be appointed supervisor of a sanatorium in London. Under her able guidance, it turned from a chamber of horrors into a model hospital. The innovations introduced by Miss Nightingale were, for their day, little short of revolutionary. She demanded, and got, a system of dumb-waiters that enabled food to be sent directly to every floor, so that nurses

did not exhaust themselves carrying trays up numerous flights of stairs. She also invented and had installed a system of call bells by which a patient could ring from his bed and the bell would sound in the corridor, with a valve attached to the bell which opened when the bell rang, and remained open so that the nurse could see who had rung. "Without a system of this kind," she wrote, "a nurse is converted to a pair of legs."

"Florence Nightingale, nurse, renewer of society" James Kiefer 2000

Source 3

"They are sexually, constitutionally and mentally unfitted for the hard and unending work, and for the heavy responsibilities of general medical and surgical practice. Women might become midwives, but in an inferior position of responsibility as a rule. I know of no great discovery changing the boundaries of scientific knowledge that owes its existence to a woman. What right have woman to claim mental equality to men?"

An extract from an article in "The Lancet" 1870

Source 4

" She was a wonderful woman.... all the men swore by her, and in case of any malady , would seek her advise and use her herbal medicines, in preference to reporting themselves to their own doctors. That she did effect some cure is beyond doubt, and her never failing presence amongst the wounded after a battle and assisting them made her beloved buy the rank and file of the whole army'

A soldier at Scutari decribes the work of the Black nurse Mary Seacole

Source 5

During the 19th century the movement for reform in nursing was led by Florence Nightingale, a woman of intellectual and moral power. Family contacts with humanitarian leaders and an education that included training in science, mathematics, and political economy were her preparation. She critically studied nursing as it was practiced in several countries, formulated her ideas, and wrote extensively.

In 1854 Florence Nightingale was asked by the British secretary of state at war to go to Scutari in Turkey, where absence of sewers and of laundering facilities, lack of supplies, poor food, disorganized medical service, and absence of nursing led to a death rate of more than 50 percent among wounded soldiers. Her work and that of the nurses whom she recruited brought sufficient improvement to lower the death rate to 2.2 percent. A gift of 45,000 was raised by popular subscription, and Florence Nightingale used it to establish schools of nursing at St. Thomas's Hospital in London and elsewhere.

Florence Nightingale believed nursing to be suitable as an independent career for capable, trained women, that nursing services should be administered by those with special preparation, and that relationships between physicians and nurses should be professional. She maintained that schools of nursing should be administered by nurses with physicians as part of the hospital labour force. She believed that there was a substantial body of knowledge and skills to be learned in nursing. Nurses were to be prepared for hospital nursing and care of the sick at home, and they were to teach good health practices to patients and families.

By the end of the 19th century, the idea that a nurse needed to be educated and trained had spread to much of the Western world. In England, Scandinavia, America, and much of the British Empire, schools of nursing were generally based on training hospitals, and more nurses had become independent of religious institutions

Encyclopeadia Brittannica CD Rom 1999

Source 6

You are expected to become skilful:

1. In the dressing of blisters, sores and wounds and applying poultices and minor dressings

2. In the application of leeches, externally and internally

3. In the management of helpless patients, i.e. moving, changing, cleanliness, preventing and dressing bed sores

4. You are required to attend at operations

5. To be competent to cook gruel, arrowfoot, egg flip puddings and drinks for the sick

Instructions to new nurses at Florence Nightingale's school for nurses 1862


Using the sources and your own knowledge answer the following questions. Print out the questions and sources and give yourself 35 minutes in exam conditions. Come back on line to mark your work against our mark scheme (link)

1. What does source 1 tell us about nursing before the late 19th century? (6 marks)

2. Study sources 3 and 4. Which would be the most useful to an historian studying the history of nursing? (6 marks)

  1. Do sources 2, 5 and 6 prove that standards in nursing had improved by the end of the Nineteenth century? (8 marks)

Come back on line once you have answered the questions. Time allowed 40 minutes!